Programming Object Oriented, What OOP is?

What is oop on code

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that has revolutionized software development, enabling developers to build complex and scalable applications. OOP allows developers to structure their code using objects, which encapsulate data and behaviors into modular units, making it easier to manage and maintain code.

In this article, we will provide a comprehensive guide to object-oriented programming, covering everything from the basics of OOP to advanced techniques for managing complex data structures and algorithms. We will explore the key concepts of OOP, such as encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism, and demonstrate how they can be used to build more robust and scalable software.

We will also discuss common design patterns used in OOP, such as the Singleton and Factory patterns, and explore best practices for organizing and structuring code using OOP principles. Additionally, we will look at how OOP is used in popular programming languages such as Java, Python, and C++, and how it can be applied to a wide range of programming domains, including web development, gaming, and machine learning.

Whether you’re new to object-oriented programming or looking to improve your OOP skills, this article provides a comprehensive guide to unlocking the power of OOP and building better software.

The advantages of OOP over other paradigms

Object oriented programming

Object-oriented programming (OOP) has become one of the most popular programming paradigms for building software applications due to several advantages it offers over other programming paradigms. Here are some of the advantages of OOP over other paradigms:

  • Reusability: OOP enables developers to reuse code easily through the concept of inheritance, where classes can inherit properties and methods from other classes. This saves time and effort by reducing the need to rewrite code.
  • Modularity: OOP allows developers to break down their code into smaller, more manageable modules, known as objects. This makes the code more organized and easier to maintain, especially for large and complex projects.
  • Encapsulation: OOP allows developers to hide the internal workings of an object, providing a clear interface for other objects to interact with. This makes it easier to maintain the codebase and makes it less prone to errors.
  • Polymorphism: OOP enables developers to write code that can handle different data types and objects, making it more versatile and adaptable to changing requirements.
  • Flexibility: OOP can be used in a wide range of programming domains, including web development, gaming, and machine learning. This makes it a versatile and flexible programming paradigm that can be applied to many different applications.
  • Collaboration: OOP provides a common framework and vocabulary for developers to work together, making it easier for teams to collaborate on projects and share code.

Overall, the advantages of OOP over other programming paradigms make it a popular choice for building software applications, and it continues to be widely used in many programming domains.

OOP Example on Java language

Suppose we have a program that needs to store information about different types of vehicles, including cars, trucks, and motorcycles. We can use OOP to create a Vehicle class with common properties and methods, and then create subclasses for each specific type of vehicle.

// Vehicle class
public class Vehicle {
    private String make;
    private String model;
    private int year;

    public Vehicle(String make, String model, int year) {
        this.make = make;
        this.model = model;
        this.year = year;

    public String getMake() {
        return make;

    public String getModel() {
        return model;

    public int getYear() {
        return year;

    public void drive() {
        System.out.println("Driving the vehicle");

// Car subclass
public class Car extends Vehicle {
    private int numDoors;

    public Car(String make, String model, int year, int numDoors) {
        super(make, model, year);
        this.numDoors = numDoors;

    public int getNumDoors() {
        return numDoors;

    public void drive() {
        System.out.println("Driving the car");

// Truck subclass
public class Truck extends Vehicle {
    private int payloadCapacity;

    public Truck(String make, String model, int year, int payloadCapacity) {
        super(make, model, year);
        this.payloadCapacity = payloadCapacity;

    public int getPayloadCapacity() {
        return payloadCapacity;

    public void drive() {
        System.out.println("Driving the truck");

// Motorcycle subclass
public class Motorcycle extends Vehicle {
    private boolean hasSidecar;

    public Motorcycle(String make, String model, int year, boolean hasSidecar) {
        super(make, model, year);
        this.hasSidecar = hasSidecar;

    public boolean hasSidecar() {
        return hasSidecar;

    public void drive() {
        System.out.println("Driving the motorcycle");

In this example, we create a Vehicle class with common properties such as make, model, and year, as well as a drive() method that is common to all vehicles. We then create subclasses for Car, Truck, and Motorcycle, each with their own specific properties and methods.

We can then create instances of each subclass and call their specific methods, while still being able to access the common properties and methods of the Vehicle class:

public class Main {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Car myCar = new Car("Toyota", "Corolla", 2022, 4);
        Truck myTruck = new Truck("Ford", "F-150", 2021, 2000);
        Motorcycle myMotorcycle = new Motorcycle("Harley Davidson", "Sportster", 2019, true);; // Output: "Driving the car"; // Output: "Driving the truck"; // Output: "Driving the motorcycle"

In this way, OOP allows us to create more flexible and scalable code by organizing it into reusable objects with common properties and methods.


In conclusion, Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is a powerful paradigm for creating flexible and scalable code. By organizing code into reusable objects with common properties and methods, we can create more modular and maintainable code that is easier to understand and modify.

OOP allows us to encapsulate data and behavior within a class, and create instances of that class to interact with our program. This makes it easier to manage complex programs by breaking them down into smaller, more manageable parts.

Furthermore, OOP provides a wide range of benefits over other programming paradigms, including:

  • Encapsulation: Allows us to hide the implementation details of our code and protect it from external interference, making it more secure and easier to maintain.
  • Inheritance: Allows us to create subclasses that inherit properties and methods from a superclass, reducing code duplication and increasing code reuse.
  • Polymorphism: Allows us to use the same method to perform different actions depending on the object that is calling it, improving the flexibility and scalability of our code.

Overall, OOP is a versatile and valuable tool for programmers, and is used extensively in modern programming languages such as Java, C++, and Python. By mastering OOP principles and techniques, programmers can create more efficient, robust, and maintainable code.

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